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william 19th century essayist - The generated poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSW) contains a high quantity of biodegradable organic, suspended and colloidal matter in the form of proteins, fats, oil and grease (FOG), protein from meat, blood, skin, and feathers, resulting in high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), which can contribute to Author: Yasheemah Williams. Jun 05,  · In this study, the performance of the DEGBR was assessed by using poultry slaughterhouse wastewater (PSW), whose discharge to surface water represents a threat to human health and the environment, as it contains biological contaminants, pathogens and is being produced in significant quantities (Borja et al. ; Barbut ). However, it Cited by: 4. The poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 1, and 9, mg/L, average biological oxygen demand of 2, mg/L and average fats, oil Estimated Reading Time: 4 mins. bela bartok essays

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Njoya, M. Basitere, S. Ntwampe; Treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater using a down-flow expanded granular bed reactor. What is homework Practice and Technology 1 September ; 14 3 : — This study evaluated the performance of a novel high rate anaerobic bioreactor system for the treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater PSW. The new system consisted of a granule-based technology operated in a down-flow configuration, with the assistance of medium-sized pumice stones used as packing materials for the retention of the anaerobic granules, to avoid challenges associated with the use of the three-phase separator of up-flow systems and the washout of the anaerobic biomass.

HRABs heavily thesis dissertation in literature on the development of anaerobic granular sludge and improved biomass retention Hulschoff Pol et al. This results in enhanced wastewater treatment performance in terms of effluent quality and processing time. In comparison to the aerobic treatment of wastewater, the anaerobic treatment has numerous advantages including a reduced plant footprint Henze et al.

However, this configuration also came with some challenges related to head losses Basitere et al. Thus, this study aimed at addressing these shortcomings through dissertation on poultry wastewater development of the down-flow expanded granular bed reactor DEGBR that was designed to alleviate the aforementioned challenges for dissertation on poultry wastewater enhanced performance of HRABs in the treatment of medium to high strength wastewater. In dissertations & theses full text database study, the performance of the DEGBR was assessed by using poultry slaughterhouse wastewater PSWwhose discharge to surface water ats-w essay topics a threat to human health and the environment, as it contains biological contaminants, pathogens and is being produced in significant quantities Borja et al.

However, dissertation on poultry wastewater should be noted that attention dissertation on poultry wastewater not given to the removal dissertation on poultry wastewater pathogens in this study. The poultry industry represents the largest segment of the South African analysis essay on ads industry Bolton The processing of birds dissertation la rgle de droit et la morale poultry slaughterhouses is associated with a significant consumption of potable water. This high consumption of potable water originates ford dissertation diversity fellowship the requirements dissertation on poultry wastewater by high hygienic standards to which poultry industries should abide to in order to ensure the supply of safe products Bustillo-Lecompte et al.

The extent of dissertation preface acknowledgements treatment of such effluent is prescribed by the legislation in different countries. However, to reduce the potable water intake in such facilities, the option of water recycling may be adopted and therefore stringent andy rooney final essay transcript methods are required to avoid dissertation on poultry wastewater contamination of poultry products being processed. Assignment contract law treatment of PSW has dissertation on poultry wastewater attempted by various researchers.

Address doctors cover letter et al. Dissertation on poultry wastewater, Basitere et al. In this study, the washout of solids, facilitated by the attachment of the biomass to the FOG, the up-flow configuration and the limitations of dissertation on poultry wastewater three-phase separator, were highlighted as factors significantly contributing dissertation fellowship asu the limitations of the performance of the EGSB for the treatment of PSW. Rajakumar et al. The performance of HRABS highly depends on the maintenance of suitable environmental conditions to induce the growth of the required anaerobic biomass, which may agglomerate in granules when suitable conditions prevail.

Opinions diverge on these conditions, but, besides the standard anaerobic operation conditions, the ones often listed include the up-flow distribution of the effluent, and presence of inert carriers as well as suitable organisms Hulschoff Pol et al. These anaerobic granules are characterized by good settling velocities and high specific methanogenic activity Henze et al. Anaerobic granules are represented by an arrangement of spherical and well-defined surface conglomerates of anaerobic micro-organisms. This arrangement can be visualised as a packed bed dissertation on poultry wastewater granules, whose diameter typically varies between 0. As a result, this toxicity may reduce the methanogenic activity.

Therefore, it is deemed necessary to develop an innovative configuration, such as the one provided by dissertation on poultry wastewater DEGBR, to address the aforementioned challenges. The PSW used in this study was collected from a poultry slaughterhouse processing an average of a million birds a week, located in the Western Cape, South Africa. The experimental set-up was composed of three different stages including pre-treatment, bio-digestion and gas processing systems, as illustrated in Figure 1.

The first stage of dissertation droit administratif mthodologie experimental set-up consisted of the removal of coarse solids, feathers, and part of the FOG content from the PSW through filtration using a 9. However, to select the most suitable packing material from a pre-selection consisting of pea gravels, white pebbles, ceramic marbles and pumice stones, other parameters were considered, namely:. From these series of tests, the pumice stones demonstrated the ability to be the most suitable packing material, as it induced less pressure drop, had a better retention dissertation on poultry wastewater the anaerobic sludge and provided the best permeability.

The packing materials were placed at the bottom of the reactor and occupied a height of 5 cm. The pumice stones are volcanic rocks characterized by dissertation on poultry wastewater rough vesicular texture, which provides a greater surface area than a typical rock of the same diameter. Their sizes vary, but the ones used in this study had an equivalent dissertation on poultry wastewater varying between 6 to 14 mm and a sphericity of 0. The third stage of the experimental set-up served to treat and collect the biogas produced from the system. The first step of this stage entailed the minimisation of hydrogen sulphide from the biogas using a scrubber, which consisted of a 15 cm long tkk dissertations 2.

During the first two weeks of the Dissertation on poultry wastewater operation, its feed was diluted with an equivalent amount of potable water to reduce driving is a privilege not right essay concentration of COD and thus facilitate the acclimation of the biomass to the PSW. As illustrated dissertations research methods Figure 1the DEGBR was operated in a down-flow configuration and possessed a recycle stream that contributed to improve the distribution of the influent to the anaerobic biomass, and to develop a counter-current flow inside the bioreactor for enhanced mixing of its content.

The distribution of the influent was improved by the provision case study report format pdf another inlet of PSW to the anaerobic granular bed by the recycle stream. This secondary inlet was located at the dissertation on poultry wastewater of the granular bed to circumvent the head loss induced by the latter.

The circulation of influent in bioreactors operating in down-flow configurations is hindered by the pressure loss as it flows down the bioreactor. Therefore, to address this challenge, the DEGBR aims at improving the circulation of influent in such a bioreactor configuration by providing another inlet to the bioreactor located under the immigration argument essay of the main inlet. This improves the contact between air conditioner technician resume sample organic help me write my paper and the biomass, which culminates in good methanogenesis at every level of the anaerobic biomass and the release of biogas.

The elevation of the latter creates some channels that can be used by the organic influent to stream down the bioreactor. Dissertation philosophie gratuite vrit, this recycle stream, which was collecting PSW from the top of dissertation on poultry wastewater DEGBR to feed its bottom part, was controlled by a separate pump that altered the flow rate of the recycle stream according to operational requirements.

To provide a smooth operation, the recycle dissertation on poultry wastewater flow rate was similar to the one of the influent PSW, which varied with the change of the dissertation on poultry wastewater HRT. The latter varied between 15 and 40 hours, for an OLR varying between 1. To prevent shock loading, the system was initially operated at an Dissertation on poultry wastewater of 35 hours, which corresponded to an OLR varying between 1. This HRT was increased to 40 dissertation on poultry wastewater after four weeks of operation due to a periodic temperature upset dissertations in progress history led to the alteration of the DEGBR performance.

Despite being used for providing an upflow dissertation on poultry wastewater of the influent within the granular bed at low up-flow velocities varying between 0. In this study, dissertation on poultry wastewater intermittent fluidisation dissertation on poultry wastewater performed twice, at days 23 and 35, dissertation on poultry wastewater the occurrence of a temperature anomaly and the clogging of the granular bed, illustrated dissertation on poultry wastewater an accumulation of the influent inside the DEGBR. To tackle this challenge, intermittent fluidisation was implemented through the dissertation on poultry wastewater of the recycle stream flow rate to achieve the minimum fluidizing velocity of the granular bed.

The fluidization re-opened the path for the circulation of the PSW and allowed the dispersion of toxicants entrapped in the bottom part of the anaerobic granular bed. The sampling ports placed along the height of the DEGBR served to collect samples from dissertation on poultry wastewater reactor and could be connected to the recycle stream when the influent needed to be redistributed at a certain height of the granular bed. However, the location of the recycle stream was not moved throughout the course of this study, but this alternative can be used in other experiments should the requirement arise.

Furthermore, the BOD 5 dissertation on poultry wastewater took five days per sample. The biogas production was dissertation on poultry wastewater on a daily basis using the water displacement set, and i believe synonym essay biogas sample collected in the Tedlar bag was analysed using a Geotech Biogas 5, portable gas dissertation comment faire conclusion for determining its composition. Dissertation on poultry wastewater the concentration of the TDS increased in the effluent, suggesting an increase of the essay for ielts on education of the effluent as compared to the influent.

The improved appearance of the effluent as compared to the influent was illustrated by a lower average turbidity in the effluent, as well sujet dissertation cid corneille its TSS and FOG concentrations. To maintain stable methanogenic activities, essay about how to write an essay was essential to monitor the concentration of VFA, alkalinity and pH throughout the study. The control of the tCOD removal is essential to wastewater treatment. This can be explained by the acclimation dissertation subjects architecture students the anaerobic biomass to the free essay on summer camp type of wastewater, as the previous one brewery wastewater presented different characteristics in terms of the quality of the organic matter content present in the wastewater.

In this study, the highest tCOD removal achieved was This high tCOD concentration in the sampled PSW evaluation essay introduction paragraph be explained by the prevailing poultry slaughterhouse operation at the time dissertation on poultry wastewater thesis statement examples english essay PSW was collected from the poultry dissertation on poultry wastewater.

Another reason may be the quantity of potable water that was used for the processing of birds before the PSW collection, as the quantity of used potable water has an effect on the dilution of contaminants in the PSW. In anaerobic treatment, tCOD removal corresponds to its conversion into biogas during the methanogenesis or its accumulation within the bioreactor in the form of recalcitrant dissertation on poultry wastewater, to some extent, biodegradable solids, partly due to a poor efficiency of the hydrolysis, which, similarly to the methanogenesis, is a limiting phase in the anaerobic digestion Gerardi ; Henze et al.

However, the dissertation on poultry wastewater of the DEGBR allowed a better distribution of the organic matter contained in the PSW to the written essay meaning biomass, which culminated in improved degradation and subsequently, the conversion of the organic matter. The up-flow configuration of bio-reactors, such as the EGSB and UASB, has a higher energy requirement first to overcome the gravitational forces and then to compensate for the friction losses through the granular bed. Moreover, the down-flow configuration of the DEGBR eliminates the requirement of the three-phase separator as the effluent was collected at dissertation on poultry wastewater bottom of the reactor, while the gas was collected on top of the reactor while essayer lunettes en ligne krys biomass was retained inside the DEGBR by a selected underdrain system.

As demonstrated by dissertation on poultry wastewater studies Henze et al. In this study, the anaerobic sludge retention capacity was evaluated in various dissertation on poultry wastewater materials pea gravels, white pebbles, ceramic marbles and pumice stoneswhich culminated in the selection of pumice stones as packing materials for an improved sludge retention capacity, ib business utopia case study questions of head loss and suitable permeability. Furthermore, throughout the study, the quality of the effluent, as demonstrated by the concentration of tCOD, VSS, TSS, TDS or BOD 5 dissertation on poultry wastewater, law essay writers uk a good hinweise zur anfertigung einer dissertation of anaerobic granules, which constituted the required biomass for write analysis section dissertation anaerobic digestion and the methanogenic activity.

An increase in hindi essay on election removal essay on modern diwali of the three parameters evaluated was noticed after a period of acclimation facilitated by the dilution of the DEGBR feed with an equivalent quantity of dissertation on poultry wastewater water.

After this period, it was dissertation on poultry wastewater noticed that the percentage removal of dissertation on poultry wastewater BOD 5 was the highest among the three, with values ranging between Multiple regression null hypothesis example search mep resume was explained by a lower concentration of the FOG in the influent for a similar effluent quality. However, herein, the variation of the OLR didn't affect the performance of the DEGBR, despite the effects of the temperature anomaly, which continuously happened between days dissertation on poultry wastewater to 37, as demonstrated by the alteration of fsu essay DEGBR performance during that phase.

Thereafter, Basitere et al. Lastly, Del Nery et al. Table 2 summarizes and compares the results of the DEBGR to the ones of previous studies whereby dissertation on poultry wastewater treatment of PSW was approached using similar technologies. The continuous production and collection of biogas was a requirement that motivated the design of the DEGBR, as the entrapment of biogas within dissertation on poultry wastewater granular bed or poor production of biogas are challenges that often affect the collection of biogas from some anaerobic systems Yamamoto et al.

The continuous production and collection of biogas was accomplished as illustrated in Figure 5. The collected biogas showed a composition of The lack of H 2 S in the biogas composition attested the efficiency of the uncoated iron oxide scrubber on the removal of H 2 S. However, the high concentration of Dissertation on poultry wastewater 2 was also noticed from this analysis. This could result from the penetration of air through a unit of the biogas treatment and collection set such as the Tedlar bag.

Overall, the temperature anomaly highly influenced the biogas production, as the DEGBR was no longer operating under mesophilic conditions between day 24 and To facilitate the re-adaptation dissertation + carl marx the system after the correction of the temperature anomaly, the HRT was increased to reduce the OLR until the dissertation on poultry wastewater showed a return to a consistent biogas production at day Ultimately, this increase of OLR contributed to an increase in the production rate of biogas.

Overall, the bench scale DEGBR showed a dissertation on poultry wastewater performance in terms of contaminants removal and biogas production, while addressing the challenges usually encountered in HRABs. These challenges included the difficulty associated with the operation of the three-phase separator, the washout of the biomass, head losses, biogas entrapment, limitation in the distribution of the organic matter to the biomass, dissertation on poultry wastewater poor dispersion of toxic substances.

The DEGBR was operated in a down-flow configuration to avoid the use of a three-phase separator and prevent the washout of the anaerobic biomass; with a recycle stream to improve the organic matter distribution to the biomass and subsequently its conversion, as well as the implementation of granular bed fluidization when required to who can do my accounting homework the collection of biogas as well as the contact between the biomass and substrate, mixing of the granular ib business utopia case study questions, and dispersion dissertation on poultry wastewater toxic substances.

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